C# (pronounced “see sharp”) is a computer programming language. It was created to use all capacities of the .NET platform. The most recent version is C# 11, which was released in November 2022, alongside .NET 7. C#’s development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg, the creator of Delphi. Since its introduction, C# has been widely adopted and is the de facto programming language for most Windows-based development.
Though specific reference types can provide such services by exposing a public constructor or implementing a corresponding interface (such as ICloneable or IComparable). Examples of reference types are object (the ultimate base class for all other C# classes), System.String (a string of Unicode characters), and System.Array (a base class for all C# arrays). Instances of value types neither have referential identity nor referential comparison semantics. Equality and inequality comparisons for value types compare the actual data values within the instances, unless the corresponding operators are overloaded.
To declare a variable in C#, you need to specify its type and name. The interoperability process allows C# programs to perform all the tasks that a native C++ application. A decade later, Microsoft began developing free, open-source, and cross-platform tooling for C#, namely Visual Studio Code, .NET Core, and Roslyn. Mono joined Microsoft as a project of Xamarin, a Microsoft subsidiary. The curly brackets demarcate the boundaries of a code block.
These tutorials are targeted at absolute beginners with no prior knowledge of the C# programming language. When a developer builds a C# application, the source code is compiled into an intermediate language (IL) that conforms to the Common Language Infrastructure standard. The IL code and other application resources are stored in an assembly that is loaded into the CLR when the application runs. The CLR converts the IL code to native machine instructions using a just-in-time compilation process. C# is a versatile programming language primarily used for developing Windows applications, web services, and games within the .NET framework.
Before learning C#, you must have the basic knowledge of C Programming Language. Hence, Microsoft has managed to maintain high-quality documentation for C#. These documentations are continuously updated to keep up with the changes in C#.
- The CLR runs the code and provides services that enable and enhance application development and cross-platform designs.
- Hence, it is very easy for someone with experience in these programming languages to switch to C#.
- The newly released C# emphasized source code portability with support for both hosted and embedded systems.
- This tutorial will teach you basic C# programming and will also take you through various advanced concepts related to C# programming language.
- This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand basic C# programming.
C# language support is provided with the C# Dev Kit extension. It is widely used as a software development methodology to create applications that are more strong and can easily scale. The code is type safe can only access memory locations that it has permission to execute. A unified type system implies that all types, including primitives such as integers, are subclasses of the System.Object class.
Boxing is the operation of converting a value-type object into a value of a corresponding reference type. Boxing in C# is implicit. Unlike C++, C# does not support multiple inheritance, although a class can implement any number of “interfaces” (fully abstract classes). This was a design decision by the language’s lead architect to avoid complications and to simplify architectural requirements throughout CLI. C# offers Java-like synchronized method calls, via the attribute [MethodImpl(MethodImplOptions.Synchronized)], and has support for mutually-exclusive locks via the keyword lock. Our docs will help you quickly discover why Mojo is such a powerful extension to Python, and the future of AI programming. Utilize the full power of the hardware, including multiple cores, vector units, and exotic accelerator units, with the world’s most advanced compiler and heterogenous runtime.
Our C# tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals. C# is a modern and powerful language that allows developers to build robust applications quickly and easily. Today, C# can be run on most platforms (Windows, Linux, macOS, etc.) without changing the source code. C# can be run on the Xbox 360 platform with a special framework. Our C# programming tutorial will guide you to learn C# programming one step at a time.
When you start learning a new programming language, it is important to know about the prospect of the language. Before diving into a new programming language, these are the things you must know. The code written in C# is much simpler and easier to understand. Hence, for a person with experience in Java, C# won’t be a difficult language to learn. You can click on the references of an object to find the locations of its use in place without losing context.
Language Integrated Query (LINQ)
The suffix has also been used for libraries, such as Gtk# (a .NET wrapper for GTK and other GNOME libraries) and Cocoa# (a wrapper for Cocoa). C# programming is very much based on C and C++ programming languages, so if you have a basic understanding of C or C++ programming, then it will be fun to learn C#. The .NET framework also supports Language-Integrated Query c sharp programming language (LINQ), a set of technologies that integrate query capabilities directly into the C# language. In addition to simplifying data access, LINQ offers developers a consistent experience when accessing data from objects, relational databases or Extensible Markup Language resources. When building C# applications, developers can use type declarations to create new types.
Categories of data types
A type declaration defines the name and members of the new type. Type declarations are based on six of the subcategories available to value and reference types. They include struct types, enum types, tuple value types, class types, interface types and delegate types.
C# Object Class
Value types are derived from System.ValueType, always have a default value, and can always be created and copied. Other examples are enum (enumerations) and struct (user defined structures). In C#, memory address pointers can only be used within blocks specifically marked as unsafe, and programs with unsafe code need appropriate permissions to run. An unsafe pointer can point to an instance of an unmanaged value type that does not contain any references to objects subject to garbage collections such as class instances, arrays or strings. Code that is not marked as unsafe can still store and manipulate pointers through the System.IntPtr type, but it cannot dereference them.
Modern Programming Language
The newly released C# emphasized source code portability with support for both hosted and embedded systems. In contrast, reference types have the notion of referential identity, meaning that each instance of a reference type is inherently distinct from every other instance, even if the data within both instances is the same. Some operations are not always possible, such as creating an instance of a reference type, copying an existing instance, or performing a value comparison on two existing instances.
This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand basic C# programming. According to the 2017 survey of StackOverflow, C# is 3rd most popular language used by professional desktop and web application developers. A type-safe language ensures that each variable of a particular type does not hold values of other types. For example, an integer variable will not hold character values. The following figure shows the C# code for a simple console application as it appears in Visual Studio. The application adds together two integers that are entered by the user and then returns the total to the console.